Zaine Ridling, PhD

Access Foundation






From the ancient classics to the masterpieces of the 20th century, the Great Books are all the introduction you’ll ever need to the ideas, stories, and discoveries that have shaped modern civilization.




01: Hammurabi
(18th c. BCE) to John Milton (1608)
02: La Rochefoucauld
(1613) to Emily Brontë (1818)
03: Karl Marx
(1818) to Arthur Miller (1915)
04: Saul Bellow
(1915) to Annie Dillard (1945)


Access the Great Books is a compilation of over 240 great authors and their works.

The Access Foundation List
© is liberal in scope, robust in its cataloging, and voluminously linked to other sites that help readers access and study great literature. This list devotes notable attention to works of philosophy and science, and is unrivaled in its organizational structure, background, and biographical content on the authors listed.

ACCESS FOUNDATION holds that time spent reading the Great Books is time well spent. Great books lists are not meant to be exclusive of any tradition or culture, but rather form a foundation of knowledge on which to stand.. Reading the great books allays the "busyness" of modern life; encourages self-examination, increases reflection, and provokes intellectual curiosity.

What follows is a list compiled by ACCESS FOUNDATION from a variety of sources, and based most notably from the one developed for the Great Books collection of the Encyclopædia Britannica by Robert M. Hutchins, Mortimer J. Adler, and Mark Van Doren. It is strongly recommended that the reader visit The Center for the Study of the Great Ideas for background on the ideas and formation of this list. To actively participate with others in a local discussion group, visit The Great Books Foundation, whose goal is "to build communities of readers who explore important ideas through enduring literature."

This great books list is liberally inclusive, though it contains few works of poetry. Poetry was often kept from the list in favor of prose and nonfiction. Titles are listed, except when the word "Works" is listed. This indicates that any or all of the author's works are recommended. Although not every author's work may be considered "great", we listed as many of each author's works that are worthy of your time. Finally, the list is ordered chronologically, then by the author's year of birth.

Currently agreed international copyright law prohibits public access to works until 70 years after the author's death. Soon this will exclude much of the great literature published after 1950 until well after the year 2050 or further. . Access Foundation financially supports efforts to bring copyrighted works online in electronic format for inexpensive purchase. Authors on this list interested in this option, please contact Dr. Ridling for further information.

Finally, we wish to thank the scholarship of all the individuals, organizations, and universities who help make such a project worthy of their efforts. Their continued commitment to clarifying the complex ideas in literature and philosophy has helped us all over the years. We are grateful and proud to consociate ourselves with the Britannica Online, one of the finest and most complete online literary resources available.

 - Zaine Ridling, PhD




Suggestions, additions, and corrections pertaining to this site and its content should be directed to its compiler and site manager.







01  Hammurabi (18th c. BCE) to John Milton (1608)


Hammurabi (c. 1790 BCE)
The Code of Hammurabi 

Homer (c. 9th Century BCE)
Online Works
Godaddy vs Web.com
The Homeric Hymns
Epigrams of Homer

Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 BCE)
[Gilgamesh Summary]

The Hebrew Bible
New Revised Standard Version 
Revised Standard Version
Multiple Versions - Bible Gateway

Hesiod (fl. c. 700 BCE)
Online Works  [2]
Works and Days
Shield of Heracles

The Catalogues of Women and the Eoiae (fragments)
The Divination of Birds to Idaean Dactyls
The Marriage of Ceyx to Doubtful (fragments)

Aesop (c. 520-460? BCE)
Online Works
Fables  (Illustrated)

Aeschylus (c. 525-456 BCE)
Online Works

Sophocles (c. 495-406 BCE)  [More info]
Online Works

Herodotus (c. 484-425 BCE)
Online Works

Euripides (c. 485-406 BCE)
Online Works

Thucydides (c. 460-400 BCE)
Online Works
History of the Peloponnesian War

Hippocrates (c. 460-377? BCE)
Online Works
Hippocratic Oath
On Airs, Waters, and Places
Medical Writings

Sun-Tzu (c. 450-380 BCE)
Online Works
The Art of War

Aristophanes (c. 448-380 BCE)
Online Works

Plato (c. 427-347 BCE[More info]
Online Works
The Republic
   [tr. Benjamin Jowett]

Aristotle (384-322 BCE)  [More info]
Online Works

Epicurus (c. 341-270 BCE)  [More info]
Letter to Herodotus
Letter to Menoecus

Euclid (c. 365-300 BCE)  [More Bio]
Online Works
   (Interactive version)

Archimedes (c. 287-212 BCE [More Info]
Online Works

Apollonius of Perga (fl. c. 240 BCE)
Conic Sections 
Cicero (106-43 BCE[Plutarch's 'Cicero']
Online Works
De Officiis
Old Age

Lucretius (c. 95-55 BCE)
Online Works
On the Nature of Things

Virgil (70-19 BCE)
Online Works

Horace (65-8 BCE)   [More info]

Livy, Titus Livius (59 BCE-CE 17)
Online Works
History of Rome

Ovid (43 BCE-CE 17)  [More info]
Online Works

Plutarch (c. 45-125)
Online Works
Plutarch's Lives

Tacitus (c. 55-117)
Online Works

Nicomachus of Gerasa (fl. c. 100 CE)
Online Works
Introduction to Arithmetic     
     [Gif of Greek Multiplication Table]

Epictetus (c. 60-120[More info]
Online Works
Golden Sayings

Claudius Ptolemy (fl. 127-145)

Lucian of Samosata (c. 117-c.180)
Alexander the Oracle-Monger
Zeus Rants

Marcus Aurelius (121-180)
Online Works

Galen of Pergamum (c. 129-216)
Online Works
On Hippocrates' On the Nature of Man

On the Natural Faculties
Exhortation to the Study of the Arts, Especially Medicine
On Diagnosis in Dreams
The New Testament
New Revised Standard Version 
Revised Standard Version
Multiple Versions - Bible Gateway

Plotinus (205-270)
The Enneads  [2

St. Augustine (354-430[More Bio]
Online Works
On the Teacher
City of God
On Christian Doctrine

Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (470?-524)   [More Bio]
The Consolation of Philosophy

The Quran (c. 650)
Yusuf Ali Version
Standard English Version
Three Versions Side-by-Side 

Beowulf (c. 700-750)
Beowulf_1   Beowulf_2 
[Resources for Study]
[More Resources]

St. Anselm (1033-1109)   [More info]
Online Works
 - Gaunilo's Response to Anselm (In behalf of the Fool)
 - Anselm's Response to Gaunilo (Apologetic)
Cur Deus Homo
On God's Existence

Gottfried von Strassburg (fl. 1210)
Tristan and Isolde  [Bibliography]    

The Song of Roland (1185-1187)
Online Versions
  2nd Copy-HTML   [PDF Version]

The Nibelungenlied (c. 1200)
Online Versions
(Volsunga Saga - The Story of the Volsungs)

The Saga of Burnt Njal (c. 13th century)
Online Versions

Magna Carta (1215)  
Online Versions  [2]

St. Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225-1274) [More Bio] [3]
Online Works
Of God and His Creatures 
Commentary on Aristotle's De memoria et reminiscencia
On the Eternity of the World
Summa Theologica

Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)  [More Bio] [3]
Online Works
The Divine Comedy

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375[More Bio]
Online Works
The Decameron

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340-1400)
Online Works
Troilus and Criseyde

The Canterbury Tales    [In Middle English]
The Parliament of Fowles
Complete Works with Commentary

Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight (ca. 1375-1400)
  Online Versions
  [2]  [PDF Version]

Thomas À Kempis (1380-1471)
Online Works
The Imitation of Christ

Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1446-1471)
Online Versions
Le Morte d'Arthur v.1

Le Morte d'Arthur v.2

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)
Oration on the Dignity of Man  [2]

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)  [More Bio] [3]
Online Works
The Prince

Discourses on Livy     
      Machiavelli by Thomas Macaulay

Desiderius Erasmus (1469-1536)  [More info]
Online Works
The Praise of Folly
Colloquia - Concerning Men, Manners, and Things
Complete Works

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

Sir Thomas More (1477-1535)  [More Bio]
Online Works
The History of King Richard the Third
Last Letter, To Daughter

Martin Luther (1483-1546)   [More info]
Online Works
On the Freedom of a Christian
95 Theses
The Babylonian Captivity of the Church
An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility
Address to the Nobility
Treatise on Good Works

Francois Rabelais (c. 1494-1553)
Gargantua and Pantagruel   [2]

John Calvin (1509-1564)  [More Bio]
Online Works
Institutes of the Christian Religion

The Necessity of Reforming the Church

Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
Essays    [2]
Apology for Raimond Sebond
Of Books
That We Should Not Judge of Our Happiness
   Until After Our Death
Of Friendship
Of The Institution and Education of Children

William Gilbert (1540-1603)
On the Loadstone and Magnetic Bodies

Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)
Online Works
Don Quixote

   H-Cervantes Online

Edmund Spenser (c. 1552-1599) [More info]  [3]
Online Works
The Faërie Queene
Amoretti and Epithalamion
Selected Poetry

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)  [More info]
Online Works

Advancement of Learning
Argument That Bacon Authored Shakespeare
Novum Organum
New Atlantis

Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)
Online Works
Tamburlaine the Great
The Jew of Malta
Doctor Faustus
Ovid's Elegies

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)  [Bio]
Online Works
Poetry and Plays

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642[More Info]
The Starry Messenger   [Lecture]      
Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences 

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Epitome of Copernican Astronomy
Concerning the Harmonies of the World

Ben Jonson (1573-1637)
Online Works
The Alchemist
Essay on Shakespeare
Selected Poetry and Prose

William Harvey (1578-1657)
On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals
On the Circulation of the Blood     
On the Generation of Animals 

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)  [More info]  [Even more]
Online Works
The Leviathan
De Cive
Dialogue Between a Philosopher and a Student...

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)   [More Bio]
Online Works
Rules for the Direction of the Mind     
Discourse on the Method
Meditations on First Philosophy

John Milton (1608-1674)   [More info]
Online Works
Shorter Poems

Of Education
Paradise Lost
Paradise Regained
Samson Agonistes
Poetical Works Online


02  La Rochefoucauld (1613) to Emily Brontë (1818)


Francois de La Rochefoucauld (1613-1680)

Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688)
The True Intellectual System of the Universe

Molière (1622-1673)
Online Works
The Misanthrope
Don Juan

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)  [More Bio]
Online Works
The Provincial Letters

John Bunyan (1628-1688)
Online Works
The Pilgrim's Progress
Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners
The Holy War

Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695)  [More Bio] [3
Treatise on Light

Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677)  [More Bio]
Online Works
On the Improvement of the Understanding
Selected Works

John Locke (1632-1704[More Bio]
Online Works
A Letter Concerning Toleration  
Of Civil Government
Second Treatise of Government  
Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Jean-Baptiste Racine (1639-1699)
Online Works

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)  [More Bio]  [3]
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
   *A Short Account of the History of Mathematics

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) [2]
Online Works
Discourse on Metaphysics
New Essays Concerning Human Understanding
   *A Short Account of the History of Mathematics

Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)   [More Bio] [Literature]
Online Works
Moll Flanders
Robinson Crusoe
A Journal of the Plague Year  [Summary]

Jonathon Swift (1667-1745)
Online Works

William Congreve (1670-1729)
Online Works
The Double-Dealer
Love for Love
The Old Bachelor
The Way of the World

George Berkeley (1685-1753)  [More Bio]  [3]
Online Works
Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
Three Dialogues Between Hilas and Philonous

Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
Online Works
Moral Essay II

Essay on Man  [2]
Complete Poetry

Charles de Secondat, 
   Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

Online Works
Spirit of Laws
Persian Letters

Samuel Richardson (1689-1761)
The History of Sir Charles Grandison

Voltaire (1694-1778)
Online Works
Letters on England
A Treatise on Toleration   [Excerpt]     
Philosophical Dictionary    [Study Guide]

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
Online Works
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

Selected Sermons
A Divine and Supernatural Light...

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Online Works
Poor Richard's Almanac
Collected Works

Henry Fielding (1707-1754[Literature]
Online Works
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling  [Article]

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)
Online Works
A Dictionary of the English Language
Life of Joseph Addison
The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia
The Lives of the Poets

David Hume (1711-1776)
Online Works
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
Treatise on Human Nature
An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Selected Works and Commentary
Selected Political Essays

Jean Jaques Rousseau (1712-1778)  [More Bio]
Online Works
The Confessions
The Social Contract

Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) [Literature]
Online Works
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman
A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy

Tobias Smollett (1721-1771)
Online Works
The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker [Summary]
Travels Through France and Italy
The Adventures of Roderick Random

Adam Smith (1723-1790[More Bio]
Online Works 
The Theory of Moral Sentiments
Wealth of Nations

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)  [More Info]
Online Works
Critique of Pure Reason
Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
Critique of Practical Reason
Prolegomena To Any Future Metaphysics
Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone
Critique of Judgment

Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
Online Works
Reflections on the Revolution in France
Sublime and Beautiful

Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774)
Online Works
The Vicar of Wakefield
She Stoops To Conquer

Edward Gibbon (1737-1794)
Online Works
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Thomas Paine (1737-1809[More Bio]
Online Works
The Age of Reason
Common Sense
African Slavery in America
The Rights of Man 

James Boswell (1740-1795)
Online Works
Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.

Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794)
Elements of Chemistry

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Online Works
Selected Writings and Commentary
A Summary View of the Rights of British America
Declaration of Independence
The Jefferson Bible

John Jay (1745-1829),
James Madison (1751-1836),
Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804)

Federalist Papers 
Articles of Confederation
Declaration of Independence
Constitution of the United States

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832[More Bio]
Online Works
Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
The Rationale for Punishment

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
Online Works
Faust    [Study Guide]  
Poetry and Truth 

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797
Online Works
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)
Analytical Theory of Heat
Fourier Analysis

Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834)
On Religion

George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831[More Info]
Phenomenology of Spirit
Phenomenology of Mind
Philosophy of Right

Friedrich Hölderlin (1770-1843)
Hymns and Fragments
Selected Poems

William Wordsworth (1770-1850)
Online Works

Lyrical Ballads

Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832[More Bio]
Online Works

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)
Online Works
Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Kubla Khan
On Poesy or Art

Jane Austen (1775-1817[More Info]
Online Works
Pride and Prejudice      
Sense and Sensibility   
Mansfield Park
Northanger Abbey
Complete Works and Commentary

Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831)
Principles of War
On War

Stendhal (1783-1842)
The Red and the Black
The Charterhouse of Parma
The Life of Henry Brulard

Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Online Works
The Sketch Book
Rip Van Winkle
The Alhambra
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824)
Online Works
Don Juan

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860[More Bio]
The World As Will and Idea
Studies in Pessimism
Essays and Aphorisms

James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851)
Online Works
The Deerslayer
The Pathfinder 
The Last of the Mohicans

Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Online Works

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)
Online Works

Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Principles of Geology (Excerpts)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857) [Resources]
The Positive Philosophy 

Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850)
Online Works   

Victor Hugo (1802-1885)
Online Works
Les Misérables
The Hunchback of Notre Dame

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Online Works
Collected Essays

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
The Scarlet Letter
House of Seven Gables
Complete Online Works
List of Online Works

Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859)
Online Works
Democracy in America
American Institutions and Their Influence

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
Online Works
A System of Logic
On Liberty
The Subjection of Women

Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849)
Online Works
Complete Poems
Complete Works

Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865
Online Works  

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Online Works

William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863[3]
Online Works
Vanity Fair
Essay on Jonathan Swift

Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Online Works

Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855[More Bio]
Online Works
Concluding Unscientific Postscript
Fear and Trembling
Sickness Unto Death

Claude Bernard (1813-1878) [More Info]
Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine

Anthony Trollope (1815-1882)
Online Works

Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855) [More Info]
Online Works
Jane Eyre

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)   [More Bio]
Online Works
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
Civil Disobedience
A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
Selected Works and Commentary

Emily Brontë (1818-1848[More Info]
Online Works
Wuthering Heights


03  Karl Marx (1818) to Arthur Miller (1915)


Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Online Works
Das Kapital  (Full Text)  (Synopsis)
Principles of Communism
The Communist Manifesto    [Study Guide]
On the Jewish Question
The Poverty of Philosophy
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
Complete Works

George Eliot (1819-1880)
Online Works
Adam Bede
Silas Marner
The Mill on the Floss
Middlemarch   [Summary]
Daniel Deronda
Selected Works

Herman Melville (1819-1891)
Online Works
Complete Works

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
Online Works  [2]
Leaves of Grass
Supplementary Prose
Calamus Poems
Complete Prose Works [2]

Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)
Online Works
Madame Bovary  [Summary]

Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)
Online Works
Crime and Punishment   [Study Guide
The Idiot                    [Study Guide]     
The Brothers Karamazov  [Study Guide]
Notes from Underground  [Study Guide]  [Summary]
A Gentle Spirit: A Fantastic Story
The Grand Inquisitor
Selected Works
Complete Works  (in Russian)

Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)
Online Works
Peer Gynt
Terje Viken
A Doll's House
The Wild Duck

Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
Online Works
War and Peace
Anna Karenina  
What is Art?     
Death of Ivan Ilych
The Kreutzer Sonata

Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)
Online Works
Complete Works    [Study Guide

Samuel Butler (1835-1902)
Online Works
Erewhon Revisited
The Way of All Flesh

Mark Twain (1835-1910)
Online Works
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
The Mysterious Stranger
The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson
Innocents Abroad
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
Life on the Mississippi
What is Man? and Other Essays

Henry Adams (1838-1918)
Online Works
The Education of Henry Adams

Émile Zola (1840-1902)
Online Works
  [Study Guide]

Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)
Online Works 
The Return of the Native
The Mayor of Casterbridge  [Summary]
Far from the Madding Crowd
Tess of the d'Urbervilles
Jude the Obscure
Wessex Poems, and Other Verses

William James (1842-1910)  [Main Bio]
Online Works
The Principles of Psychology
The Varieties of Religious Experience
The Will To Believe
Essays in Radical Empiricism

Henry James (1843-1916)  [More Bio]
Online Works
Complete Works

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900[More]
Online Works    
Thus Spake Zarathustra   [Study Guide]
Twilight of Idols
The AntiChrist
Beyond Good and Evil
On The Genealogy of Morals
Human, All Too Human
The Will To Power
The Gay Science
DayBreak, or "The Dawn"
Ecce Homo

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
Online Works
The Picture of Dorian Gray
Lord Arthur Savile's Crime
Essays and Lectures
Selected Prose

Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) [More Bio]
Science and Hypothesis
Science and Method

Sir James Frazer (1854-1941)
The Golden Bough

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) [More Bio]
Online Works
The Interpretation of Dreams  [Study Guide]
The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement
Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis
New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis 
Civilization and Its Discontents 
Psychopathology and Everyday Life
A Young Girl's Diary
The Future of an Illusion
Moses and Monotheism

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950
Online Works
Man and Superman
Major Barbara
An Unsocial Socialist
Mrs. Warren's Profession

Joseph Conrad (1857-1924)
Online Works
Heart of Darkness 
The Secret Sharer  [Summary]

Max Planck (1858-1947)  [More Info]
Origin and Development of the Quantum Theory
Where Is Science Going?
Scientific Autobiography

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)  [More Info]
Ideas: General Intro to Pure Phenomenology   
Cartesian Meditations
Philosophy and the Crisis of European Man
Pure Phenomenology
Logical Investigations (in German)

Henri Bergson (1859-1941[More Bio]
Time and Free Will     
Matter and Memory     
Creative Evolution     
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion 

John Dewey (1859-1952)
Online Works
How We Think
Democracy and Education
The School and Society
Experience and Nature
Reconstruction in Philosophy

Anton Chekhov (1860-1904
Online Works
Selected Works and Short Stories

Annotated Works and Synopses
The Complete Short Stories

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)
Online Works
   [Website for Whitehead's Thought] [Summary]
Principia Mathematica   [Summary]     
An Introduction to Mathematics     
Treatise on Universal Algebra
Science and the Modern World
Process and Reality
Religion in the Making
The Aims of Education and Other Essays
Adventures of Ideas
Modes of Thought

Edith Wharton (1862-1937[More Bio]
Online Works  [2]
The Age of Innocence

George Santayana (1863-1952)
The Life of Reason     
Skepticism and Animal Faith
Persons and Places

Rudolf Otto (1869-1937)  [More Bio]
The Idea of the Holy

Vladimir Ilich Lenin (1870-1924)
Online Works  [2]
The State and Revolution
Karl Marx: A Brief Biographical Sketch
Marxism and Revisionism
The Tasks of the Youth Leagues

Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Online Works  [2]
The Red Badge of Courage  [Summary]

Marcel Proust (1871-1922
In Search of Lost Time
   also titled, Remembrance of Things Past

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)  [More Bio]
Online Works
Principia Mathematica
The Problems of Philosophy
A Free Man's Worship
Philosophical Consequences of Relativity   [2nd copy]

Rainer Maria Rilke (1875-1926)  [More Bio]
Online Works
Duino Elegies  (in German)
Selected Poetry

Stories of God
Sonnets to Orpheus
Possibility of Being

Thomas Mann (1875-1955) [More Bio]
The Magic Mountain  [Summary]     
Death in Venice     
Doctor Faustus 

Hermann Hesse (1877-1962)  [More Bio]
The Glass Bead Game  
Siddhartha    [Summary]   
Narcissus and Goldmund   

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)  [More Info]
The Meaning of Relativity     
Relativity: The Special and the General Theory [2]
  *Einstein's Reply to Criticisms 
What is the Theory of Relativity
Why Socialism?
On the Method of Theoretical Physics

On the Theory of Relativity
Sidelights of Relativity
The Evolution of Physics 

E.M. Forster (1879-1970)
Online Works  [2]
Howard's End
A Passage to India   [Summary
A Room with a View  [Summary]
Where Angels Fear to Tread

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) [More Bio]*
The Divine Milieu 

James Joyce (1882-1941) [Resources]
Online Works
Ulysses  [Summary]  [Text Notes]
Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man  [Summary]
Dubliners    [Study Guide]

Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
Online Works  [2]
Mrs. Dalloway
To the Lighthouse

Jacques Maritain (1882-1973)
Online Works
Art and Scholasticism
The Degrees of Knowledge
The Rights of Man and Natural Law
True Humanism

Franz Kafka (1883-1924)
The Trial     
The Castle     
Metamorphosis  [Summary]

D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930)
Online Works
Sons and Lovers
Women in Love
Lady Chatterley's Lover
Rocking-Horse Winner

Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951)
Online Works
Main Street  
Our Mr. Wrenn
Arrowsmith  [Summary]

Paul Tillich (1886-1965)
The Courage To Be
The Shaking of the Foundations

T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
Online Works
Four Quartets
The Waste Land
The Love Song of Alfred J. Prufrock

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)
Philosophical Investigations
The Blue and the Brown Books

Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975)
Online Works
A Study of History
The Decline of the West
Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
Being and Time
The Basic Problems of Phenomenology [Intro]    
Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)
Hegel and the Greeks
Existence and Being
An Introduction to Metaphysics
Poetry, Language, Thought
Basic Writings

Boris Pasternak (1890-1960)
Doctor Zhivago  [Summary]  

Aldous Huxley (1894-1963)
Online Works
Brave New World
Crome Yellow
Eyeless in Gaza

F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) [More Bio]
Online Works     Online Resources
The Great Gatsby  [Summary]

William Faulkner (1897-1962)
The Sound and the Fury  [Summary]  [Commentary
Absalom, Absalom   [Commentary]
As I Lay Dying       [Commentary
Light in August 

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
The Sun Also Rises     
A Farewell to Arms      
The Old Man and the Sea  [Summary]

Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977)
Online Resources
Lolita [Info]
Pale Fire
Collected Short Stories

E.B. White (1899-1985), and
  William Strunk, Jr. (1869-1946)
The Elements of Style   

André Malraux (1901-1976)
The Conquerors     
The Royal Way     
Man's Fate     
Man's Hope     
The Voices of Silence  

John Steinbeck (1902-1968) [More Info
The Grapes of Wrath 
Of Mice and Men  [Summary]
East of Eden
The Pearl  
Cannery Row  

Karl Popper (1902-1994)  [More Info]
The Logic of Scientific Discovery     
Conjectures and Refutations

Mortimer J. Adler (1902-2001)
How To Read a Book
The Great Ideas Today
A Guidebook To Learning

George Orwell (1903-1950)
Politics and the English Language
Shooting an Elephant
Collected Essays
Animal Farm  [Summary]
1984            [Summary]
Political Writings

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)
Existentialism and Human Emotions
Being and Nothingness
No Exit 

Ayn Rand (1905-1982)  [More Info]
Atlas Shrugged
The Fountainhead  

Arthur Koestler (1905-1983)
The Act of Creation
The Ghost in the Machine
The God That Failed
Darkness at Noon

Samuel Beckett (1906-1989[More Info]
Waiting for Godot  [Summary]

Eudora Welty (1909-2001)  [More Info]
Lily Daw and the Three Ladies
Delta Wedding
The Bride of Innisfallen
The Optimist's Daughter
Collected Stories

Alfred Jules Ayer (1910-1989)
Language, Truth and Logic
The Central Questions of Philosophy

Northrop Frye (1912-1991)  [More Info]
Anatomy of Criticism
The Great Code        [Discussion]
Words with Power     [Summary]

Albert Camus (1913-1960)  [More Info]
Online Resources
The Stranger  [Summary]
The Plague
The Fall
The Rebel

William E. Barrett (1913-1992)
Irrational Man
The Illusion of Technique
The Death of the Soul

Arthur Miller (1915-2006)
The Crucible             [Summary]  
Death of a Salesman  [Summary]


04  Saul Bellow (1915) to Annie Dillard (1945)


Saul Bellow (1915-2006)  [More Info]
Herzog    [Summary]
Humbolt's Gift

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1918- [More Info]
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich  [Summary]
August 1914: The Red Wheel, v.1
November 1916: The Red Wheel, v.2
The Cancer Ward
The Gulag Archipelago
Invisible Allies

Jerome David Salinger (1919- )
Catcher in the Rye

Iris Murdoch (1919-1999) [More Bio]
The Good Apprentice
Bruno's Dream
The Sea, The Sea
The Bell
Metaphysics as a Guide to Morals

John Rawls (1921-2002)
A Theory of Justice  [Bibliography] (Concepts)
Two Concepts of Rules

Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)
On the Road 

Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions  [Outline]

Italo Calvino (1923-1985)
The Uses of Literature
The Baron in the Trees
If on a Winter's Night a Traveler
Invisible Cities

Joseph Heller (1923-1999)
God Knows
Good as Gold

Maya Angelou (1928- )
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
On the Pulse of Morning 

Robert Pirsig (1928- [More Info] [More Bio]
Zen and and Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (PDF)
Lila: An Inquiry into Morals 

Jan Gullberg (1936-1998)
Mathematics From the Birth of Numbers

Thomas Pynchon (1937- )
The Crying Lot of 49  [Summary]
Gravity's Rainbow

Seamus Heaney (1939- )
The Spirit Level

David Berlinski (1942- )
A Tour of the Calculus
The Advent of the Algorithm

John L. Casti (1943- )
Paradigms Lost
Godël: A Life of Logic

Annie Dillard (1945- )
Pilgrim at Tinker Creek





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